Ярославского государственного университета им. П. Г. Демидова
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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://elar.uniyar.ac.ru/jspui/handle/123456789/1307

Заглавие: Роль ораторского искусства полководца в идеологии и практике военного лидерства в древнем Риме
Другие заглавия: The Role of Roman Military Leader's Eloquence in the Ideology and Practice of Roman Military Leadership
Авторы: Махлаюк, Александр Валентинович
Makhlayuk, Alexandr Valentinovich
Ключевые слова: Вестник древней истории (ж-л)
римская армия
Roman army
ораторское искусство
военное лидерство
military leadership
воинские сходки
military meetings
military contiones
история Древнего Рима
history of ancient Rome
общие работы по истории античного Рима
general papers on the history of ancient Rome
полнотекстовая версия
full-text version
Issue Date: 2004
Издатель: РАН
Библиографическое описание: Махлаюк А.В. 2004: Роль ораторского искусства полководца в идеологии и практике военного лидерства в древнем Риме // ВДИ. 1, 31-48.
Краткий обзор (реферат): Статья посвящена различным аспектам ораторского искусства римских военных лидеров, которое исследуется в контексте социальных и культурных традиций римской цивилизации, а также в связи с задачами и условиями произнесения речей, адресованных воинам, и с учетом комплекса представлений об идеальном военном лидере. The article is devoted to various aspects of Roman military rhetoric. The role of eloquence in military leader’s activities is considered in a context of social and cultural traditions and values of the Roman civilization. This role is also analyzed in connection with the tasks and circumstances of delivering a speech addressed to the army as well as with the complex of ideological characteristics of an ideal military leader. The author opposes the opinion that the speeches adressed by the leaders to the warriors before battles (ądhortationes, παρακλήσεις) are no more than a literary device used by ancient writers; he argues that these speeches, as well as the leader’s speeches at military meetings (contiones, adlocutiones), were an important aspect of their office (activities). While realizing the literary tasks of the greatest part of military leader’s speeches in ancient writers’ accounts, one has to acknowledge that both these author’s attention to the verbal aspect of military leadership and numerous cases of a direct appraisal or specific detailes imply a great practical importance of the leaders’ eloquence for the Roman army. The inevitably short exhortative speeches before the battle were expected not to demonstrate the leader’s rhetorical skills, but to underline his personal presence at the battle, the emotional, personable and individualized character of his allocution to different military units. As for the speeches at military meetings, they demanded greater skill and variety of rhetorical means, because they were aimed at a grater scale of tasks depending on the multiple important functions of contio miliaris in the Roman army and political life. Unlike hortationes (monologues by the very nature) these speeches could acquire a character of a dialogue between military leadership and soldiers who would give an active response and set forth their own demands. For a Roman military leader it was important to be able not only to give orders, but also to persuade, to inspire and to admonish his subordinates, to know and to form their minds. Neither on the battlefield, nor at the moments of political crises and military revolts could legionaries be simply ordered, for they never ceased to be citizens, and military meetings (whose central moment was the military leader’s speech) would often become a sort of comitia, or contiones and took immediate decisions considering the power in the state. The character of the audience consisting of soldiers, specific functions of military leader’s speeches and the circumstances of their delivering determined stylistic qualities of military leaders’ speeches, often mentioned in the sources. The literary discourse and the genre specifics of ancient historiography, the ideologically relevant elements of the figure of Roman military leader and the real practice of military commandment in ancient Rome had one thing in common: a deeply rooted conviction of an ancient man that orator's word is one of the most important factors of the human conduct. Power and authority enjoyed by a military leader depended, therefore, not only on his military virtues and personal charisma, not only on his legal competence and on the military discipline, but also on the impact of his eloquence, which helped him to influence the soldiers and to establish the specific mode of relations with the mass of soldiers.
Описание: Это авторский препринт статьи, принятой для публикации в журнале "Вестник древней истории", © Российская академия наук, 2004 г. (http://www.naukaran.ru/)
URI: http://elar.uniyar.ac.ru/jspui/handle/123456789/1307
Appears in Collections:Статьи, рецензии, персоналии в периодических, продолжающихся и др. изданиях (ST.ANTIQ.)

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